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The newly invented agroforestry and open vertical farms integrate vegetables, orchards and trees with crops or livestock to enhance biodiversity, conserve soil and water resources, and sequester carbon.

Agroforestry is a land management system combining trees or shrubs with agricultural crops and/or livestock on the same land. It is a sustainable land-use practice with many environmental, economic, and social benefits.

Improved soil health: Trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems help improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter, reducing soil erosion, and improving soil structure, leading to increased crop yields and improved soil fertility.

Diversified income streams: Agroforestry systems can provide multiple sources of income, such as from crop sales, livestock sales, and timber or non-timber forest products and help to reduce economic risk and improve household incomes.

Biodiversity conservation: Agroforestry systems can help to support and conserve biodiversity by providing a habitat for a wide range of plant and animal species and is particularly important in areas where natural habitats have been degraded or destroyed.

Climate change mitigation: Trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems sequester carbon from the atmosphere, which can help to mitigate climate change. Additionally, agroforestry systems can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

Improved resilience: Agroforestry systems can enhance the stability of farming communities by providing a diverse range of crops and income streams and reducing the risk of crop failure due to weather events or pests and diseases.

Agroforestry systems can take many forms, depending on local conditions and the landowner's goals. Some standard agroforestry practices include alley cropping, where rows of trees are planted in between crop rows and where trees are integrated into livestock grazing systems.


Greenhouse farming, also known as protected agriculture or controlled environment agriculture, has many advantages, such as increased crop yields, better crop quality, and year-round crop production. However, limited crop diversity is the main disadvantage or limitation of Green House farming. Greenhouse farming best suits high-value crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, and peppers. This limits the diversity of crops grown in a greenhouse, disadvantaging farmers who want to produce a broader range of crops. The newly invented agroforestry and open vertical farm integrate vegetables, orchards, and trees with crops or livestock to enhance biodiversity and be financially viable to the farmers. In addition, the sunlight enhances the quality of vegetables and other herbs planted openly.


Open vertical farming, also known as vertical farming or vertical agriculture, involves growing crops in vertically stacked layers, often on the sides of buildings or in vertical structures. This approach to agriculture can be more sustainable and cost-effective than greenhouse farming.

The main advantage of open vertical farming is that it can use natural sunlight, which can reduce energy costs associated with artificial lighting in greenhouses. This approach also allows for more excellent air circulation, reducing the risk of disease and pests compared to enclosed greenhouse environments. Additionally, open vertical farming can provide more crop space than traditional greenhouse farming, which can be particularly beneficial in urban areas with limited land.

Another advantage of open vertical farming is that it can provide a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. For example, this farming method can reduce water consumption compared to traditional outdoor farming, as water can be recycled and reused within the system. Additionally, vertical farming can reduce the need for pesticides and other chemicals used in traditional outdoor agriculture, as the closed environment can help to prevent the spread of pests and diseases.

Open vertical farming can be more sustainable and cost-effective than greenhouse farming, particularly in urban areas with limited space. However, it is essential to carefully consider the costs, infrastructure requirements, and crop limitations when deciding which approach to farming to adopt.

Open vertical farming can potentially provide plants with access to more sunlight and allow for greater water efficiency compared to traditional farming methods. In addition, the farm's vertical orientation can help maximize exposure to natural sunlight, which can be supplemented with artificial lighting. This can give plants a consistent and controlled light source for growth and productivity.

Open vertical farming can be designed to be highly efficient regarding water usage. For example, recirculating water systems can deliver water and nutrients directly to the plants, reducing the water needed compared to traditional irrigation methods. This can be especially beneficial in areas with limited water resources or where water conservation is a priority.

However, it is important to note that the amount of water and sunlight available will depend on the specific design of the vertical farm, as well as the location and climate.

Overall, open vertical farming can offer several advantages over traditional farming methods, including greater control over the growing environment, increased efficiency in resource usage, and the ability to produce crops in urban areas or other locations where space is limited.